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 Forests and Climate Change Programme
 Technical Cooperation (TC Module)
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 Forests and Climate Change Programme
 Technical Cooperation (TC Module)
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 Forests and Climate Change Programme
 Technical Cooperation (TC Module)

FORCLIME provides conceptual support on the implementation of financial management systems for Forest Management Units (FMUs) in Indonesia


FMUs need to fulfill certain requirements to be operational (as stipulated in Provision 6/2007). One requirement is to develop investments that support achieving the objective of sustainable forest management. Hence, FMUs must have an adequate financial management system in place, in addition to already existing budgeting systems under the national and sub-national government framework (APBN or APBD).

FORCLIME has been supporting this process of implementing financial management systems for Forest Management Units in Indonesia for several years already, in particular together the Forest Management Unit Gularaya in Southeast Sulawesi Province. With the help of FORCLIME’s facilitation and guidance, several milestones could be achieved.

The first milestone: In early 2012, FORCLIME funded a study entitled Policy concept of investment and financial management system for Forest Management Units (FMU). The study was conducted by a team of consultants with diverse expertise in forestry as well as in public administration and finance, and was completed in August 2012. (The consultant team consisted of: Bramasto Nugroho; Sudarsono Soedomo; Handra Hefrizal; Agus Setyarso; Guido Kartodihardjo; Ali Djajono)

The second milestone: FORCLIME also supported the publication of the book “PPK-BLUD – Towards Independent FMUs” (1st edition, September 2013).

The third milestone: FORCLIME initiated a trial for the implementation of PPK-BLUD in the Gularaya Production FMU, Southeast Sulawesi Province. The trial started in June 2013.

The fourth milestone: Between March - May 2014, an intensive facilitation process was conducted at Gularaya Production FMU in cooperation with local academicians from the University of Halu Oleo Kendari. The objective of the facilitation process was to prepare the required documents for implementation of PPK-BLUD in FMU Gularaya.

The activities conducted are:

  1. Drafting the document of Minimum Service Standards (SPM) for Gularaya FMU
  2. Preparing the Strategic Business Plan (RSB) for FMU Gularaya
  3. Preparing the document of Financial Reports Prognosis in Gularaya FMU
  4. Facilitating the assessment and decision-making process of the Evaluation Team of PPK-BLUD of FMU Gularaya.

The fifth milestone: A major success was the issuance of the Southeast Sulawesi Governor Decree 636/2014 on the establishment of a PPK-BLUD Assessment Team for FMU Gularaya, dated November 11, 2014.

The sixth milestone: As a result of facilitating the trial for PPK-BLUD implementation at GularayaProduction FMU, several local government regulations were issued:

  1. Endorsement of Southeast Sulawesi Governor Regulation 268/2016 on the implementation of Sub National Public Service Agency Financial Management Pattern (PPK-BLUD) at Provincial Technical Implementation Unit GularayaPFMU, Southeast Sulawesi Province, dated 14 April 2016.
  2. Southeast Sulawesi Governor Regulation 13/2016 on the Governance Pattern of GularayaPFMU, Southeast Sulawesi province, dated 12 April 2016.
  3. Southeast Sulawesi Governor Regulation 15/2016 on Minimum Service Standards of GularayaPFMU, dated 4 May 2016.

The seventh milestone, or latest achievement in 2016 supported by FORCLIME, is the provision of the PPK-BLUD Guidance – Towards Independent FMUs (2nd edition). Improvements have been made to the 1st edition, with the new guidance now including necessary templates for the implementation of PPK-BLUD at FMU level. This guidance may assist FMU managers in Indonesia to learn from the approach taken in FMU Gularaya and implement it in their own FMUs.

For further information, please contact:
Gatot Moeryanto, Senior Adviser for FMU Development
Wandojo Siswanto, Strategic Area Manager for Forestry Policy (National and Sub-national Regulatory Framework)

Created: Tuesday, 26 July 2016

Supporting the revision of the forest inventory guideline for production and protection FMUs in Indonesia


Forest inventories serve the purpose of collecting forest data and other relevant information for management (here: Fforest Mmanagement Uunits - FMUs). They provide the basis for all further analyses and planning steps as defined in long-term as well as annual business and management plans.

The application of sound and efficient forest inventory methods at FMU level is a precondition for the formulation of 10-year as well as annual management plans of FMUs and therefore of central importance to the forest sector reform of the Indonesian Government. Specific inventories need to be conducted at regular intervals at FMU, resort (RPH) and compartment level to provide the basis for forest management by determining the potential of forest and non-timber forest products.

Current challenges for forest inventories at FMU level:

The existing inventory guideline as well as the general conditions for forest inventories cause various challenges and difficulties to the implementation of inventories at FMU level:


  • The current Technical Guidance for Forest Use Planning and the Development of Forest Management Plans in Protection Forest Management Units (KPHL) and Production Forest Management Unit (KPHP), August 2012.” (Technical Guideline for FMU Inventories) recommends applying the same forest inventory methods at FMU level as were developed for the National Forest Inventory (NFI). The simple replication of the NFI method seems inappropriate for the FMU level with the result of high sampling errors. The NFI sampling method with cluster plots consisting of 1 permanent sample plot (square plot 100m x 100m with 16 measurement units) and , 8 temporary sampling plots (with 8 subplots each) is very time consuming and costly.
  • Private sector forest concession companies within FMUs are currently using a different inventory methodology (IHMB) based on a specific guidance with large 20 x 125 m rectangular plots resulting in a time and labour intensive implementation.

Capacities of stakeholders:

  • There are limited technical and financial capacities of subnational institutions such as within the 22 existing Technical Implementation Units (Balai Pemantapan Kawasan Hutan – BPKH) of the Directorate General (DG) of Forestry Planning and Environmental Governance of the Ministry of Environment and Forestry (MoEF), FMUs, research institutions, etc.
  • Local communities are often not adequately integrated into local forest inventories despite their local knowledge on forest areas and species.
  • Most forest inventories are conducted by private sector timber concession companies which have the primary interest in creating highest revenues from timber harvesting instead of maintaining the forest ecosystem services and functions in the long run.
  • Specific inventories (e.g. forest carbon inventories) are often conducted by research programmes of universities, NGOs or smaller specialized consulting companies, and rarely integrated into the NFI system.

Mandates of stakeholders::

  • Mandates, roles and responsibilities between different stakeholders at national level (ministry) and subnational level (provincial and district level) on forest inventories are not always clear.
  • The mandates of most FMUs are very complex covering sustainable forest management (SFM), emission reduction measures (e.g. REDD+), watershed management, biodiversity conservation, production of timber and non-timber forest products (NTFPs) and thereby improvement of local livelihoods. However their capacities to fulfil these mandates are rather low.

Scale and topography:

  • Most FMUs are responsible for managing large forest areas with different functions (conservation, protection, production), ownership types and utilization rights (forest dwellers, communities, private sector).
  • Due to the size, ecology and topography, the sustainable utilization of most natural forests in Indonesia is difficult. Additionally forest inventories are time and labour intensive and require dedicated and skilled staff.

Land tenure and utilization rights:

  • In many cases boundaries and tenure rights of specific forest areas are unclear and subject to disputes and conflicts.
  • Existing land use conflicts and/or lack of local community involvement are obstacles for inventories in some forest areas. Forest inventory teams are often considered as intruders.

FORCLIME supports the revision of the FMU forest management inventory guideline

Throughout the course of one year, FORCLIME has supported MoEF’s Directorate for Forest Resources Inventory and Monitoring (IPSDH) in the revision process of the existing technical guideline for FMU forest management inventories. In close collaboration with IPSDH and together with the ForestEye consultant team from the University of Goettingen, Germany, several Focus Group Discussions (FGD), workshops and trainings have been conducted:

March 2015: Preparatory meeting.. Assessment of the problems and challenges with the current technical inventory guideline, identification of key personnel within MoEF and set-up of a roadmap for the FORCLIME supported revision process.

April 2015: Focus Group Discussion. Presentation of results from the critical review of the current guideline by the consultants and preliminary recommendations on sampling design alternatives and options for the design of management inventories.

July 2015: Information and Training Needs Assessment. Assessment of the actual purpose of inventories on FMU level to identify information required to be collected during inventories. The link between inventory information and sustainable management plans was a critical issue. The expressed training needs were addressed through subsequent workshops and intensive training sessions in November.

November 2015: Workshop and training. FMU, BPKH and MoEF staff discussed possibilities to increase the cost-effectiveness of the inventory methodology as well as the clear formulation of the inventory purposes and objectives according to FMU needs. The one-day workshop was followed by a three-day training on Geographic Information Systems (GIS), data management, remote sensing and modern forest mensuration devices.

March 2016: Final workshop. A large group of forestry experts from MoEF, universities, FMUs, FAO and GIZ came together for a two-day workshop. Participants provided final inputs and discussed the minimum standard guideline for forest management inventories at FMU level compiled by FORCLIME and ForestEye Consultants.

Ultimately, FORCLIME and the ForestEye consultant team from the University of Goettingen will finalize the minimum standard guideline for forest management inventories on FMU level which will include all results and inputs from the above-described workshop series. This document is FORCLIME’s contribution to the ongoing revision process of the MoEF IPSDH’s inventory guideline and will be available in English and Bahasa Indonesia. IPSDH plans completing the revision process by June 2016. The revised inventory guideline shall be implemented in 2017.
For further information please contact:
Tobias Goedde, Strategic Area Manager for Sustainable Forest Management (SFM)

Created: Monday, 23 May 2016

Top marks for E-Learning: Evaluation results from 822 new forestry staff

Challenge to train 41,800 forestry staff – E-Learning as an answer?

The Center for Forestry Education and Training (CFET) of the Ministry of Environment and Forestry has the aim to train 41,800 people over the next five years. This number is three times higher than the one achieved within the last five years. One of the strategies to meet this objective is through the usage of E-Learning or Blended-Learning.

E-Learning is a self-directed or tutored learning process. The content is designed by using a software to insert photos, videos and audio fills to create an interesting learning experience. If it is provided by a CD-ROM or flash disc, E-Learning can be done off-line. No internet connection is necessary. E-Learning processes are more efficient, if learners collaborate online and are facilitated by trainers. Normally trainers support the learning process by using online chats or writing feedback with E-Mail. But if there are technical difficulties, it is also possible to use phone calls or sending SMS. Blended-Learning combines the outlined E-Learning with classical face-to-face trainings. This is often used to deepen the reflection by discussing the competencies gained online or offline.

E-Learning offers the possibility to conduct trainings for a high number of forestry personnel in remote areas. Therefore E-Learning can contribute to human capacity development to ensure dedicated and well trained forestry staff for Indonesian Forest Management Units, which can realize sustainable forest management, biodiversity conservation and livelihood improvement.

FORCLIME supports Implementation of E-Learning

Is E-Learning surely appropriate for the Centre for Forestry Education and Training (CFET) and its regional branchs? To answer this important question, a preliminary assessment of the e-learning readiness was conducted in September 2014. Through group discussions with the management and trainers, it became obvious that the Implementation of E-Learning is possible. It also been regarded as appropriate to increase quality of learning and quantity of trained forestry personnel. In a next step a E-Learning Discovery Workshop was necessary to join forces and to sharpen the vision for E-Learning within the CFET and the regional training centres. To gain clear inside into the implementation process, two training institutions from Ministry of Finance and Province East Java shared their experiences and challenges. Furthermore the State Administration Agency (LAN) was invited to give orientation about rules and regulations applied for E-learning activities of the trainers. It was guaranteed that the efforts of the trainers will be honoured likewise classical training development and facilitation. Another important topic of this workshop was the identification of a training for which E-Learning should be developed. It was jointly agreed that E-Learning will be developed to support the training of 822 new forestry personnel in March 2015.

With 3 content development workshops for about 30 trainers it was possible to reach the very challenging milestone in time. 822 new staff for Forest Management Units were able to learn with 6 Modules:

  • Introduction into “Forest Management Unit” (FMU)
  • Management of Collaboration within FMU
  • Facilitation technique for Communication and Collaboration within FMU
  • Entrepreneurship in FMU
  • Analysis of non-timber forest products for economic empowerment in FMU
  • Introduction into the usage of GPS in FMU

For a look into the modules, please visit: pusdiklathut.org/baktirimbawan

Findings of the Evaluation

The participants were asked to give feedback to gain inside into the benefits and challenges of the provided 6 E-Learning modules. The modules got top marks from the learners. In average 1/3 of the participants said, that the modules are very interesting, varying from module to module from 55 to 70 Percent. 2/3 of the participants reported, that the modules are interesting, varying from module to module from 25 to 37 Percent. Interestingly 39 Percent of the participants reported, that a lot of new learning content was provided by the E-Learning Modules. “Management of Collaboration within FMU” for example, was one of the modules, which provided mostly new content for nearly half of the participants (45 percent). As more than 2/3 of the participants (68 percent) summarize, that the E-Learning Modules are very helpful for their future work in the Forest Management Unit, it could be said, that the E-Learning was a great success. Thus, further efforts to implement E-Learning and Blended Learning within CFET, the regional training centers and also vocational highschools can be done with great motivation and spirit.


The Implementation of E-Learning is to set up the Learning Management System (LMS) that has conducted in end of March 2015. During this meeting discussed how tasks and responsibilities will be organized within the Center of forestry education and training (CFET) and the regional training centers (BDK). The forestry vocational Highschools (SMKK) were invited to get insight into the possibilities of E-Learning and to reflect on their involvement. A very important goal of this event will be the Identification of future trainings, which are suitable as Blended-Learning trainings. Next to a Workshop to develop Blended Learning, several more Training of the trainers (ToT) will be offered. One ToT will support the trainers to gain competencies, how to facilitate learners in their E-Learning processes. Afterwards trainers and member of the E-Learning Team are competent to provide themselves Training for E-Learning/Blended Learning Development, ToTs for E-Learning Facilitation and Learning Management System (LMS) Trainings. By 2016 the Center of forestry Education and Training as well as the Regional Training centers are able to develop and conduct E-Learning successfully to strengthen Human Capacity Development of forestry staff in Indonesia and also in the ASEAN Region. These are important steps towards realization the vision being a center of Excellence for forestry training.

For further information, please contact:

Anne-Cathrin Vonarx, Adviser for Human Capacity Development
Edy Marbyanto, Strategic Area Manager for Human Capacity Development

Created: Monday, 11 May 2015

Support on Conservation Forest Management Unit (CFMU/ KPHK) development

FORCLIME provides advice to the Directorate General of Natural Resources and Ecosystem Conservation (KSDAE) of the Indonesian Ministry of Environment and Forestry, on the development of non-national park Conservation Forest Management Units (CFMU).
One product of this collaboration is a guidance for the “Design and Operational Management of CFMUs” (Rancang Bangun dan Operasional Pengelolaan KPHK). The document, which was completed in 2015, outlines the planning and preparatory steps for CFMU establishment as follows:

  1. Cluster the designated conservation area for management area certainty.
  2. Assess ecological aspects for ecological suitability with its designation.
  3. Evaluate distance and size for the effectivity and efficiency of the management unit.
  4. Assess resource availability, distribution, and accessibility for utilization.

First, a buffering technique based on proximity and adjacency, as well as geographical and ecological aspects is used for the determination of a new CFMU. Later on, key conservation areas are being identified through the Expert Judgment method, the core for delineation of the proposed management unit.
Other products resulting from the collaboration, are “Technical Operational Guidelines for Conservation Forest Management Units” (Petunjuk Teknis Operasional Kesatuan Pengelolaan Hutan Konservasi), or “Standards, Criteria and Procedures for CFMU Development” (currently in process).
Moreover, FORCLIME will promote these findings to be formalized in a Ministerial Regulation on CFMU development outside national parks, issued by the Ministry of Environment and Forestry.

Transformation: From Conservation Area to Conservation Forest Management Units

Based on Law No. 41 of 1999 concerning Forestry, conservation forest consists of forest sanctuaries (Strict Nature Reserve and Wildlife Reserve) and nature conservation forests (National Park, Grand Forest Park and Nature Tourism Park, including Hunting Park). Currently, existing national parks are being managed by special management units, known as National Park Offices (Balai and Balai Besar), or Grand Forest Parks which are under national or provincial governments. All other protected areas are managed by Nature Conservation Offices (Balai and Balai Besar) on provincial level. This different administration levels and institutions have led to a lack of effective management, especially in non-national park conservation areas on site level. In order to improve the sustainable management of forests, the establishment of Forest Management Units (FMU) is important for strengthening the implementation of forest management on site level. Hence, all forestland, including conservation forest shall be managed by special management unit based on its function. Therefore, the conservation areas and their current management of shall be transformed into CFMU as an area/cluster and a management unit (organization).


History of Conservation Area establishment in Indonesia

The establishment of conservation areas (CA) in Indonesia dates back to the Dutch Colonial Government which designated parts of Indonesian forests as “natuurmonumenten” (nature monument) or “wildreservaat” (wildlife reserve) under an East Indie Governor General decree. The purpose of preserving the forest included research and protection of nature and wild animal habitats, especially big mammals, birds and other attractive animals. There were areas managed by Forestry Offices (Onder het beheer van den Dienst van het Boschwezen) such as botanical reserves or the State Botanical Garden Bogor (Onder het beheer van den Directeur’s Land Paltentuin te Buitenzorg), and others managed by private sector (Onder het beheer door Particulieren) such as nature monuments. These areas were designated as nature reserves (natuurmonumenten) based on Nature Monument Law No. 278 of 18 March 1916 (Natuurmonumenten Ordonantie, Staatsblad van Nederlandch – Indie No. 278, 1916)1. In addition, many areas were designated as wildlife reserves (wildreservaat) to protect animal species which were threatened due to excessive hunting for hobby and beauty. The situation lead to restrictions of hunting activities through the enactment of Hunting Regulation no. 133/1916 (Jacht ordonnantie 1931 Staatsblad 1931 Nummer 133) which was followed by the enactment of Wild Animal Regulation (Dierenbeschermings ordonnantie 1931 Staatsblad 1931 Nummer 134).

In 1941, a Nature Protection Law (Natuurbeschermings ordonnantie 1941 Staatsblad 1941 Nummer 167) was issued as an improvement of the 1916 Nature Monument Law. However due to World War II (and Japanese invasion in 1942), no related activities were conducted until the enactment of Law No. 5 in 1967 concerning Basic Provision on Forestry. Under this law, protected areas were divided into Nature Reserve Forest and Tourism Forest. Based on this law, the former natuurmonumenten and wildreservaat were re-designated as nature and wildlife reserves. In addition, more land was designated as new protection areas such as Strict Nature Reserve, Wildlife Reserve, Tourism Park, and Hunting Park under a Ministry of Agriculture Decree. The basis of biodiversity conservation, however, was established after the enactment of Law No. 5 of 1990 concerning Living Natural Resources and Their Ecosystem Conservation, which at the same time confiscated the previous laws issued during the Dutch Colonial Government.

In 1978/1979, some conservation areas, mainly Strict Nature Reserves and Wildlife Reserves were assessed to be proposed as national parks by adjoining surrounding forestland to become reasonable compact areas. The first five national parks were declared in 1980, namely Gunung Leuser, Ujung Kulon, Gunung Gede Pangrango, Baluran and Komodo National Park. In 1982, during the World National Park Congress in Bali, another 11 areas were declared as national parks. Nowadays, there are 521 designated conservation areas in Indonesia, covering more than 27 million hectares, they include: Strict Nature Reserve (220), Wildlife Reserve (75), National Park (51), Grand Forest Park (23), Nature Tourism Park (115), and Hunting Park (13).


For more information, please contact:

Wandojo Siswanto, Strategic Area Manager for Forest and Climate Change Policy


 1 Yudistira, Pandji. 2014. Sang Pelopor.  Direktorat Kawasan Konservasi dan Bina Hutan Lindung, Direktorat Jenderal Perlindungan Hutan dan Konservasi Alam

Created: Tuesday, 17 May 2016

Forest inventory for a potential Village Forest in Karangan Bunut, West Kalimantan

karangan bunut


The implementation of the Ministry of Forestry’s forest management policy through the Forestry Minister regulation No. 49/2008 concerning village forest management is currently applied at district and community levels in Indonesia.
In particular, the community of Karangan Bunut hamlet in Manua Sadap village, Kapuas Hulu district, West Kalimantan province is actively participating in the implementation of this policy. Here, the people of Karangan Bunut have submitted a proposal to the Ministry of Forestry to manage their community forest of about 1,640 hectares under the Forest Village (Hutan Desa) scheme. The proposed location has already been verified by a team of the Ministry of Forestry in September 2012.
While waiting for the Village Forest permit to be issued by the Ministry of Forestry, the community has initiated a forest inventory, including Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) potentials, in the proposed forest area.

FORCLIME support of forest inventory in Karangan Buntut

FORCLIME in collaboration with the Tanjungpura University in Pontianak, West Kalimantan, has facilitated the forest inventory in Manua Sadap village. This activity was undertaken together with the community of Karangan Buntut.
Prior to data collection, which took place over a period of ten days, all parties involved in the inventory received a five-days training on how to conduct data collection in the field. The training also aimed at enabling the community to independently conduct forest inventories in the future.

The methodology for the forest inventory applies systematic sampling and square plots. Overall, 18 plots in a distance of 1,000 m have been installed. The distribution of plots was defined based on land cover classes, utilization principles by the community, and division of representation wide.

Findings of the forest inventory

Data analysis regarding the economic potential of the Village Forest has shown that many commercial timber species can be found in the inventory plots, such as Tekam (Hopea sp) and Meranti (Shorea sp) or Kelansau (Dryobalanops sp). Six out of the established 18 plots can be classified with very good land cover classes where many trees with a diameter of more than 35 cm, including Tekam and Meranti, can be found. This is because these six plots are located upstream and therefore difficult to reach during the community’s daily activities.
Furthermore, there are five plots with moderate land cover, which contain only a low number of less commercial timber species, such as Kempas (Koompasia malaccensis), and thus also a low timber potential.
The remaining seven plots are forests with a low canopy closure, or former fields, which therefore only contain a low timber potential. These seven plots are located close to the community’s settlements, and are thus highly influenced by their daily economic activities.

High exploitation of NTFPs such as rattan, by the community of Karangan Bunut has already reduced the presence of rattan with ready-to-be-harvested size, which can therefore today be found in upstream forest areas only.
The non-forest land located downstream at seven inventory plots is used by local people for the collection of food, such as Gambir (Syzygium polyanthum) or Entaban (Poikilospermum suaveolens). Medicinal plants like Forest Betel (Piper sp) or Keminting (Melastoma affine) are still abundant in all plots.

The Dayak Iban community in Karangan Bunut has excellent local wisdom about the use of forests and their resources. For example, not all forest areas are converted for farming, and fields are cultivated periodically. The un-cultivated land is planted with rubber and fruit trees such as durian or tengkawang, and thus often called Tembawang forest. (Tengkawang is the local name for a fruit tree that belongs to the family of Dipterocarpaceae, and has fruits which produce high value oil).
Regarding wildlife conservation, Dayak Iban local wisdom does not allow them to hunt Orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus), as they believe that the Orangutan is an ancestor of the Dayak people.


The results from the inventory will be used as a baseline to develop a forest management plan of the Karangan Bunut forest based on the Village Forest scheme.
The forest inventory has shown that the forest resource potential in Karangan Buntut is still very high. Therefore, forest management based on the Village Forest scheme combined with local wisdom will be able to achieve the sustainable management of the existing forests while also contributing to the improvement of livelihoods of the people in Karangan Buntut community.

For further information, please contact:
Ali Mustofa, Thematic Leader for Community Empowerment
Tunggul Butarbutar, Strategic Area Manager for FMU Development

Created: Tuesday, 17 September 2013

in cooperation with ministry of forestry and environmentCooperation - Republic of Indonesia and Federal Republic of GermanyImplemented-by-giz