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 Forests and Climate Change Programme
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 Forests and Climate Change Programme
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 Forests and Climate Change Programme

Climate Change in Indonesia

Climate change is expected to severely affect Indonesia: increased natural disasters will destroy livelihoods and put food security at risk.
At the same time Indonesia is among the world's top emitters of greenhouse gases responsible for global warming, mainly due to deforestation, degradation of forests and peat land and forest fires. FAO states that Indonesia lost about 24% of its forest cover and about 60% of forest biomass between 1990 and 2005. Globally, almost one fifth of greenhouse gas emissions are forest related.

The task of slowing down forest loss is very challenging, especially in countries such as Indonesia where the drivers of deforestation and degradation are both powerful and persistent, including:

  • Conversion of forests into agricultural plantations such as oil palm;
  • Unsustainable levels of logging from lawful forest concessions;
  • Small and large scale illegal logging;
  • Expansion of mining areas;
  • Forest clearance for farming, settlements and infrastructure

Initiatives to reduce forest-related emissions will boost efforts to protect and sustainably manage forests, and thus maintain the capacity of forest ecosystems to provide vital goods and services to the environment and humans

Intact ecosystem functions can also help reduce Indonesia's vulnerability to the impacts of climate change like droughts or extreme weather events.

Germany's Pledge of Support

Climate change jeopardizes progress towards the internationally agreed Millennium Development Goals.

Climate  change  is  therefore  a  major  focus  of  German development  cooperation  and  a  priority  area  in  the cooperation with Indonesia. The two countries concluded a strategic partnership on climate change in 2007, focusing on three issues: forests, emissions in cities and geothermal energy.

On forests, Germany supports Indonesia's efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the sector, to conserve forest biodiversity within the regional Heart of Borneo Initiative and to implement sustainable forest management for the benefit of the people. Germany's immediate action will focus on helping Indonesia to get ready for the implementation of a future REDD mechanism (readiness process).

The German Development Bank KfW will provide support for the FC-Module of FORCLIME (20 million EUR grant) financed by BMZ. In addition, KfW finances two projects, the Harapan Rainforest Project (7.575 million EUR) and the 0.878 million EUR project “Securing natural carbon sinks and habitats in the Heart of Borneo“, implemented by WWF. The funds for these two projects are made available by BMU through its “International Climate Initiative” (ICI).

GIZ projects focus on forests, the FORCLIME (Forests and Climate Change Programme) financed by the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) and the MRPP (Merang REDD Pilot Project), financed by the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU). However, the MRPP has been completed on December 2011.

Another GIZ project, entitled PAKLIM, focuses on emissions in cities and geothermal energy.

The Importance of Acting Now

In  the  fourth  assessment report  of  the  Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (Parry et al. 2007), scientists confirm  that  global  temperature  rise must be limited to 2°C if we are to  prevent  the  potentially  catastrophic effects of climate change.
To achieve this, the IPCC recommends  that,  by  2020,  industrialized countries should reduce their emissions  by  as  much  as  40  per cent  from  1990  levels.  However, following the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol, if global targets are to be met, it is no longer an option to disregard the activities of developing countries. Developing countries must also take action and reduce their projected rate of increase of greenhouse gas emissions. Furthermore, although emission reduction efforts to date have focused on  the  energy  sector,  future  targets  cannot  be  achieved unless forests and land use change are incorporated comprehensively into progressive climate change regimes, and adequate incentive schemes are realized.


The programme's overall objective is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the forest sector while improving the livelihoods of Indonesia's poor rural communities. To achieve this goal, the programme team will assist the Indonesian  government  to  design  and  implement  legal, policy  and  institutional  reforms  for  the conservation  and sustainable management of forests, at local, provincial and national level. Support to REDD+ demonstration activities is a key feature of the programme, providing decision-makers with experience of how REDD+ can be implemented "on the ground"

FORCLIME's Assistance

  • Advice  on  strategy  development  for  REDD+  and  forest development at national, provincial and district levels
  • Technical  advice  on  a  framework  for  the implementation of REDD+ demonstration activities at various levels, including participatory land use planning and forest zoning
  • Innovative design of mechanisms and regulations for district-based  REDD+ initiatives
  • Facilitation of monitoring, reporting and verification
  • Support to forestry administration reform processes such as the establishment of forest management units and related monitoring and inspectorate systems
  • Support to nature conservation and benefit  sharing within the Heart of Borneo (HoB) Initiative
  • Development of payment for environmental services schemes to support sustainable livelihoods in rural areas
  • Capacity building for sustainable forest management and nature conservation
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Financial Cooperation (FC)

The government of Germany commissioned KfW for financial and GIZ for technical support of FORCLIME. REDD demonstration activities financed by KfW are – together with other initiatives (i.e. AusAID; TNC; WWF) – among the first REDD "on the ground projects" in Indonesia (and worldwide). The REDD pilots are meant to demonstrate that local development, sustainable forest management, biodiversity conservation and climate protection go hand-in-hand.


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Click the "Read more" on this section to visit FORCLIME-FC's site.

Technical Cooperation (TC)

GIZ works with the Ministry of Environment and Forestry on national policy and sector strategies, to gear these strategies towards the requirements of emission reductions. Effective stakeholder participation is a critical success factor in all planning and strategy development processes.


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The West Kalimantan Provincial Government and the Ministry of LKH combining efforts to formulate a concept note for the Green Climate Fund (GCF)

in cooperation with ministry of forestry and environmentCooperation - Republic of Indonesia and Federal Republic of GermanyImplemented-by-gizKFW