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 Forests and Climate Change Programme
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 Forests and Climate Change Programme

Climate Change in Indonesia

Climate change is expected to severely affect Indonesia: increased natural disasters will destroy livelihoods and put food security at risk.
At the same time Indonesia is among the world's top emitters of greenhouse gases responsible for global warming, mainly due to deforestation, degradation of forests and peat land and forest fires. FAO states that Indonesia lost about 24% of its forest cover and about 60% of forest biomass between 1990 and 2005. Globally, almost one fifth of greenhouse gas emissions are forest related.

The task of slowing down forest loss is very challenging, especially in countries such as Indonesia where the drivers of deforestation and degradation are both powerful and persistent, including:

  • Conversion of forests into agricultural plantations such as oil palm;
  • Unsustainable levels of logging from lawful forest concessions;
  • Small and large scale illegal logging;
  • Expansion of mining areas;
  • Forest clearance for farming, settlements and infrastructure

Initiatives to reduce forest-related emissions will boost efforts to protect and sustainably manage forests, and thus maintain the capacity of forest ecosystems to provide vital goods and services to the environment and humans

Intact ecosystem functions can also help reduce Indonesia's vulnerability to the impacts of climate change like droughts or extreme weather events.

Germany's Pledge of Support

Climate change jeopardizes progress towards the internationally agreed Millennium Development Goals.

Climate  change  is  therefore  a  major  focus  of  German development  cooperation  and  a  priority  area  in  the cooperation with Indonesia. The two countries concluded a strategic partnership on climate change in 2007, focusing on three issues: forests, emissions in cities and geothermal energy.

On forests, Germany supports Indonesia's efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the sector, to conserve forest biodiversity within the regional Heart of Borneo Initiative and to implement sustainable forest management for the benefit of the people. Germany's immediate action will focus on helping Indonesia to get ready for the implementation of a future REDD mechanism (readiness process).

The German Development Bank KfW will provide support for the FC-Module of FORCLIME (20 million EUR grant) financed by BMZ. In addition, KfW finances two projects, the Harapan Rainforest Project (7.575 million EUR) and the 0.878 million EUR project “Securing natural carbon sinks and habitats in the Heart of Borneo“, implemented by WWF. The funds for these two projects are made available by BMU through its “International Climate Initiative” (ICI).

GIZ projects focus on forests, the FORCLIME (Forests and Climate Change Programme) financed by the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) and the MRPP (Merang REDD Pilot Project), financed by the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU). However, the MRPP has been completed on December 2011.

Another GIZ project, entitled PAKLIM, focuses on emissions in cities and geothermal energy.

The Importance of Acting Now

In  the  fourth  assessment report  of  the  Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (Parry et al. 2007), scientists confirm  that  global  temperature  rise must be limited to 2°C if we are to  prevent  the  potentially  catastrophic effects of climate change.
To achieve this, the IPCC recommends  that,  by  2020,  industrialized countries should reduce their emissions  by  as  much  as  40  per cent  from  1990  levels.  However, following the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol, if global targets are to be met, it is no longer an option to disregard the activities of developing countries. Developing countries must also take action and reduce their projected rate of increase of greenhouse gas emissions. Furthermore, although emission reduction efforts to date have focused on  the  energy  sector,  future  targets  cannot  be  achieved unless forests and land use change are incorporated comprehensively into progressive climate change regimes, and adequate incentive schemes are realized.


The programme's overall objective is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the forest sector while improving the livelihoods of Indonesia's poor rural communities. In order to achieve this goal, the programme team will support the Indonesian Government in the design and implementation of various legal, policy-related and institutional reforms aimed at the conservation and sustainable management of forests at the local, provincial and national levels. The geographic focus of FORCLIME is Eastern Indonesia and the Provinces of Central Sulawesi, Papua and West Papua. Support for the local implementation of international forest policy mechanisms, including REDD+ under the Climate Change Convention and the Access and Benefit Sharing Mechanism (ABS) set out under the Convention on Biological Diversity is an essential feature of the programme, and is resulting in decision-makers with experience of how international concepts can be implemented on the ground.

FORCLIME's Assistance

  • Advice on strategy development for forest development and REDD+ at the national, provincial and district levels;
  • Technical advice on a framework for the implementation of REDD+ at various levels, including a climate financing mechanism;
  • Support for forestry administration reform processes such as the establishment of forest management units and community forestry schemes;
  • Support for nature conservation and the Access Benefit Sharing Mechanism;
  • Development of environmental-service payment schemes in order to support sustainable livelihoods in rural areas;
  • Support for the marketing and sustainable use of Non-Timber Forest Products by local communities and policy measures aimed at a forest-based bioeconomy, including cooperation with local universities; and
  • Capacity building for sustainable forest management and nature conservation
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Financial Cooperation (FC)

The government of Germany commissioned KfW for financial and GIZ for technical support of FORCLIME. REDD demonstration activities financed by KfW are – together with other initiatives (i.e. AusAID; TNC; WWF) – among the first REDD "on the ground projects" in Indonesia (and worldwide). The REDD pilots are meant to demonstrate that local development, sustainable forest management, biodiversity conservation and climate protection go hand-in-hand.


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Click the "Read more" on this section to visit FORCLIME-FC's site.

Technical Cooperation (TC)

GIZ works with the Ministry of Environment and Forestry on national policy and sector strategies, to gear these strategies towards the requirements of emission reductions. Effective stakeholder participation is a critical success factor in all planning and strategy development processes.


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FORCLIME facilitates preparation of work plans by supported villages in West Papua

in cooperation with ministry of forestry and environmentCooperation - Republic of Indonesia and Federal Republic of GermanyImplemented-by-gizKFW