Challenge to train 41,800 forestry staff – E-Learning as an answer?
The Center for Forestry Education and Training (CFET) of the Ministry of Environment and Forestry has the aim to train 41,800 people over the next five years. This number is three times higher than the one achieved within the last five years. One of the strategies to meet this objective is through the usage of E-Learning or Blended-Learning.
E-Learning is a self-directed or tutored learning process. The content is designed by using a software to insert photos, videos and audio fills to create an interesting learning experience. If it is provided by a CD-ROM or flash disc, E-Learning can be done off-line. No internet connection is necessary. E-Learning processes are more efficient, if learners collaborate online and are facilitated by trainers. Normally trainers support the learning process by using online chats or writing feedback with E-Mail. But if there are technical difficulties, it is also possible to use phone calls or sending SMS. Blended-Learning combines the outlined E-Learning with classical face-to-face trainings. This is often used to deepen the reflection by discussing the competencies gained online or offline.
E-Learning offers the possibility to conduct trainings for a high number of forestry personnel in remote areas. Therefore E-Learning can contribute to human capacity development to ensure dedicated and well trained forestry staff for Indonesian Forest Management Units, which can realize sustainable forest management, biodiversity conservation and livelihood improvement.
FORCLIME supports Implementation of E-Learning
Is E-Learning surely appropriate for the Centre for Forestry Education and Training (CFET) and its regional branchs? To answer this important question, a preliminary assessment of the e-learning readiness was conducted in September 2014. Through group discussions with the management and trainers, it became obvious that the Implementation of E-Learning is possible. It also been regarded as appropriate to increase quality of learning and quantity of trained forestry personnel. In a next step a E-Learning Discovery Workshop was necessary to join forces and to sharpen the vision for E-Learning within the CFET and the regional training centres. To gain clear inside into the implementation process, two training institutions from Ministry of Finance and Province East Java shared their experiences and challenges. Furthermore the State Administration Agency (LAN) was invited to give orientation about rules and regulations applied for E-learning activities of the trainers. It was guaranteed that the efforts of the trainers will be honoured likewise classical training development and facilitation. Another important topic of this workshop was the identification of a training for which E-Learning should be developed. It was jointly agreed that E-Learning will be developed to support the training of 822 new forestry personnel in March 2015.
With 3 content development workshops for about 30 trainers it was possible to reach the very challenging milestone in time. 822 new staff for Forest Management Units were able to learn with 6 Modules:
- Introduction into “Forest Management Unit” (FMU)
- Management of Collaboration within FMU
- Facilitation technique for Communication and Collaboration within FMU
- Entrepreneurship in FMU
- Analysis of non-timber forest products for economic empowerment in FMU
- Introduction into the usage of GPS in FMU
For a look into the modules, please visit: pusdiklathut.org/baktirimbawan
Findings of the Evaluation
The participants were asked to give feedback to gain inside into the benefits and challenges of the provided 6 E-Learning modules. The modules got top marks from the learners. In average 1/3 of the participants said, that the modules are very interesting, varying from module to module from 55 to 70 Percent. 2/3 of the participants reported, that the modules are interesting, varying from module to module from 25 to 37 Percent. Interestingly 39 Percent of the participants reported, that a lot of new learning content was provided by the E-Learning Modules. “Management of Collaboration within FMU” for example, was one of the modules, which provided mostly new content for nearly half of the participants (45 percent). As more than 2/3 of the participants (68 percent) summarize, that the E-Learning Modules are very helpful for their future work in the Forest Management Unit, it could be said, that the E-Learning was a great success. Thus, further efforts to implement E-Learning and Blended Learning within CFET, the regional training centers and also vocational highschools can be done with great motivation and spirit.
The Implementation of E-Learning is to set up the Learning Management System (LMS) that has conducted in end of March 2015. During this meeting discussed how tasks and responsibilities will be organized within the Center of forestry education and training (CFET) and the regional training centers (BDK). The forestry vocational Highschools (SMKK) were invited to get insight into the possibilities of E-Learning and to reflect on their involvement. A very important goal of this event will be the Identification of future trainings, which are suitable as Blended-Learning trainings. Next to a Workshop to develop Blended Learning, several more Training of the trainers (ToT) will be offered. One ToT will support the trainers to gain competencies, how to facilitate learners in their E-Learning processes. Afterwards trainers and member of the E-Learning Team are competent to provide themselves Training for E-Learning/Blended Learning Development, ToTs for E-Learning Facilitation and Learning Management System (LMS) Trainings. By 2016 the Center of forestry Education and Training as well as the Regional Training centers are able to develop and conduct E-Learning successfully to strengthen Human Capacity Development of forestry staff in Indonesia and also in the ASEAN Region. These are important steps towards realization the vision being a center of Excellence for forestry training.
For further information, please contact:
Anne-Cathrin Vonarx, Adviser for Human Capacity Development
Edy Marbyanto, Strategic Area Manager for Human Capacity Development
FORCLIME provides advice to the Directorate General of Natural Resources and Ecosystem Conservation (KSDAE) of the Indonesian Ministry of Environment and Forestry, on the development of non-national park Conservation Forest Management Units (CFMU).
One product of this collaboration is a guidance for the “Design and Operational Management of CFMUs” (Rancang Bangun dan Operasional Pengelolaan KPHK). The document, which was completed in 2015, outlines the planning and preparatory steps for CFMU establishment as follows:
- Cluster the designated conservation area for management area certainty.
- Assess ecological aspects for ecological suitability with its designation.
- Evaluate distance and size for the effectivity and efficiency of the management unit.
- Assess resource availability, distribution, and accessibility for utilization.
First, a buffering technique based on proximity and adjacency, as well as geographical and ecological aspects is used for the determination of a new CFMU. Later on, key conservation areas are being identified through the Expert Judgment method, the core for delineation of the proposed management unit.
Other products resulting from the collaboration, are “Technical Operational Guidelines for Conservation Forest Management Units” (Petunjuk Teknis Operasional Kesatuan Pengelolaan Hutan Konservasi), or “Standards, Criteria and Procedures for CFMU Development” (currently in process).
Moreover, FORCLIME will promote these findings to be formalized in a Ministerial Regulation on CFMU development outside national parks, issued by the Ministry of Environment and Forestry.
Transformation: From Conservation Area to Conservation Forest Management Units
Based on Law No. 41 of 1999 concerning Forestry, conservation forest consists of forest sanctuaries (Strict Nature Reserve and Wildlife Reserve) and nature conservation forests (National Park, Grand Forest Park and Nature Tourism Park, including Hunting Park). Currently, existing national parks are being managed by special management units, known as National Park Offices (Balai and Balai Besar), or Grand Forest Parks which are under national or provincial governments. All other protected areas are managed by Nature Conservation Offices (Balai and Balai Besar) on provincial level. This different administration levels and institutions have led to a lack of effective management, especially in non-national park conservation areas on site level. In order to improve the sustainable management of forests, the establishment of Forest Management Units (FMU) is important for strengthening the implementation of forest management on site level. Hence, all forestland, including conservation forest shall be managed by special management unit based on its function. Therefore, the conservation areas and their current management of shall be transformed into CFMU as an area/cluster and a management unit (organization).
History of Conservation Area establishment in Indonesia
The establishment of conservation areas (CA) in Indonesia dates back to the Dutch Colonial Government which designated parts of Indonesian forests as “natuurmonumenten” (nature monument) or “wildreservaat” (wildlife reserve) under an East Indie Governor General decree. The purpose of preserving the forest included research and protection of nature and wild animal habitats, especially big mammals, birds and other attractive animals. There were areas managed by Forestry Offices (Onder het beheer van den Dienst van het Boschwezen) such as botanical reserves or the State Botanical Garden Bogor (Onder het beheer van den Directeur’s Land Paltentuin te Buitenzorg), and others managed by private sector (Onder het beheer door Particulieren) such as nature monuments. These areas were designated as nature reserves (natuurmonumenten) based on Nature Monument Law No. 278 of 18 March 1916 (Natuurmonumenten Ordonantie, Staatsblad van Nederlandch – Indie No. 278, 1916)1. In addition, many areas were designated as wildlife reserves (wildreservaat) to protect animal species which were threatened due to excessive hunting for hobby and beauty. The situation lead to restrictions of hunting activities through the enactment of Hunting Regulation no. 133/1916 (Jacht ordonnantie 1931 Staatsblad 1931 Nummer 133) which was followed by the enactment of Wild Animal Regulation (Dierenbeschermings ordonnantie 1931 Staatsblad 1931 Nummer 134).
In 1941, a Nature Protection Law (Natuurbeschermings ordonnantie 1941 Staatsblad 1941 Nummer 167) was issued as an improvement of the 1916 Nature Monument Law. However due to World War II (and Japanese invasion in 1942), no related activities were conducted until the enactment of Law No. 5 in 1967 concerning Basic Provision on Forestry. Under this law, protected areas were divided into Nature Reserve Forest and Tourism Forest. Based on this law, the former natuurmonumenten and wildreservaat were re-designated as nature and wildlife reserves. In addition, more land was designated as new protection areas such as Strict Nature Reserve, Wildlife Reserve, Tourism Park, and Hunting Park under a Ministry of Agriculture Decree. The basis of biodiversity conservation, however, was established after the enactment of Law No. 5 of 1990 concerning Living Natural Resources and Their Ecosystem Conservation, which at the same time confiscated the previous laws issued during the Dutch Colonial Government.
In 1978/1979, some conservation areas, mainly Strict Nature Reserves and Wildlife Reserves were assessed to be proposed as national parks by adjoining surrounding forestland to become reasonable compact areas. The first five national parks were declared in 1980, namely Gunung Leuser, Ujung Kulon, Gunung Gede Pangrango, Baluran and Komodo National Park. In 1982, during the World National Park Congress in Bali, another 11 areas were declared as national parks. Nowadays, there are 521 designated conservation areas in Indonesia, covering more than 27 million hectares, they include: Strict Nature Reserve (220), Wildlife Reserve (75), National Park (51), Grand Forest Park (23), Nature Tourism Park (115), and Hunting Park (13).
For more information, please contact:
Wandojo Siswanto, Strategic Area Manager for Forest and Climate Change Policy
1 Yudistira, Pandji. 2014. Sang Pelopor. Direktorat Kawasan Konservasi dan Bina Hutan Lindung, Direktorat Jenderal Perlindungan Hutan dan Konservasi Alam