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 Forests and Climate Change Programme
 Technical Cooperation (TC Module)
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 Forests and Climate Change Programme
 Technical Cooperation (TC Module)
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 Forests and Climate Change Programme
 Technical Cooperation (TC Module)

FORCLIME supports Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) in the Forest Management Unit (FMU) Berau Barat

FORCLIME continues cooperation and capacity development in the field of SFM through forest certification (SVLK/ PHPL/ FSC) in the FMU Berau Barat by collaborating with The Borneo Initiative (TBI) and The Nature Conservancy (TNC). From 28 September until 07 October 2016, a team from the organisations above conducted site visits in the three forest concessions supported by FORCLIME, namely PT. Utama Damai Timber (UDIT), PT. Wana Bhakti Utama (WBPU) and FSC certified PT. Gunung Gajah Abadi (GGA). The activity, which is part of FORCLIME’s support under the strategic area ‘SFM Sustainable Forest Management’, took place in the FMU Berau Barat, Berau District, East Kalimantan. Support to concessions to obtain SFM certification from the SVLK/ PHPL mandatory national certification scheme and the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) has been provided since 2013.

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The goal of fostering SFM and FMU development is tackled by intensively working together with so called certification coaches aiming at involving local communities and the private sector. Joint activities include technical trainings, social impact studies and community participation. The certification coaches monitor and supervise the studies, trainings and activities that lead towards one of the above mentioned forest certifications. Depending on the progress made by each forest concession and their experience with SFM, the process of receiving the SFM forest certification varies. Some decisive factors include experience and start-up investment (e.g. forest and basic infrastructure in virgin natural production forests), or duration of operations in the concessions; some companies already operate for more than 30 years whereas others started operations only five years ago.

In terms of forest operations and Reduced Impact Logging to reduce emissions (RIL-C), all three concessions received the full RIL training. This has resulted in at least 25% emission reduction on 136,000 ha, according to the TNC Verified Carbon Standard (VCS) methodology.

The field team observed that river water levels play a crucial role in transporting logs, which ultimately influences the company’s revenue streams. Many concession companies rely on the feasibility of river based rafting practices. Low river water levels result in long storage periods of logs by the river. However this leads to reduced log qualities which may affect log sales prices. Additionally natural events such as irregular rainfall have a major impact on the success of the concession company and hence the sustainability of logging in natural production forests. The optional pure road transport of logs may be an option for some concessions but not for all.
Additionally challenging terrain in mountainous areas and rainfall patterns significantly influence the logging operations as such. Heavy rainfall can stop operations until sunny weather dries the trails and roads for machines and trucks to operate safely.
As far as FSC certified concessions are concerned, managers positively reported on price premiums for FSC certified logs. In certain cases it seems that up to 10% price premiums are paid by buyers based on their clients’ requests.
The visits paid to tree nurseries in the concessions as well as field observations led to the conclusion that there will be a continuous shift of age and diameter classes as well as tree species composition over the future decades in the natural production forests. It became clear that the timber companies reforest and enrich their forest stands with species listed as ‘commercial tree species’ which can be found in the concession’s inventory documentation. Fast growing native species are planted on open spaces left behind from logging operations.
The silvicultural system and logging restrictions are currently based on species, target diameter and logging rotation cycle (30 years). Tree age, forest composition and (annual) increment are generalized over species categories and often poorly documented and/ or analysed as the information is not required to obtain a logging license.


The FMU Berau Barat covers approximately 780,000 hectares. Almost 50% of the area is categorized as limited production forest (Hutan Produksi Terbatas – HPT) and production forest (Hutan Produksi – HP). Within the FMU Berau Barat there are 12 forest concessions (natural forest/plantation forest). Therefore, the implementation of SFM in the concessions is an essential indicator and crucial for climate change mitigation actions.

For further information, please contact:
Tobias Goedde, Strategic Area Manager for Sustainable Forest Management
Suprianto, Technical Advisor for FMU development, Berau office


Responding to the growing calls for gender mainstreaming, the Ministry of Environment and Forestry (MoEF) initiated a process to mainstream gender in the forestry sector, asking the GIZ FORCLIME Programme for technical assistance. Gender mainstreaming in the development context aims to improve the quality of participation in and utilization of development processes for both men, women, and other marginalized groups. In March 2014, the Gender Working Group of the MoEF requested FORCLIME to support the Ministry in several areas:

• to integrate gender mainstreaming into MoEF’s Forestry Strategic Plan (RENSTRA 2015-2019),
• in the development of a “Gender Responsive Forestry and Climate Change Programme”,
• to revise the Ministerial Decree on the “Guideline for Implementation of Gender Mainstreaming”, and
• to implement and facilitate the documentation of lessons learned from gender mainstreaming pilot activities in the FORCLIME demonstration areas in Kalimantan.

How does FORCLIME support gender mainstreaming?

GIZ FORCLIME supported the Gender Working Group at MoEF in the inclusion of gender aspects into the Ministry’s Strategic Plan (RENSTRA 2015-2019) as well as in piloting the field implementation. This included establishment of demonstration activities at sub-national levels and – in a strategic partnership with the GIZ Strengthening Women Rights project (GIZ SWR) – leveraging SWR’s work with the Ministry of Women and Empowerment (MoWE) towards the forestry sector, using a multilevel approach.


What has been achieved so far?

• FORCLIME supported MoEF and MoWE on disseminating gender issues and Community Dialogue methodologies to 50 government officials in in East Sumba District, to 30 officials in Agam District, 30 officials in West Sumatra Province, 25 government officials in Berau District in East Kalimantan Province and 20 officials from Malinau District (North Kalimantan Province).
• FORCLIME supported MoEF and MoWE to conduct trainings on gender mainstreaming with 60 farmers (organized in farmers groups) in Sumba Timur District and with 50 farmers from Agam District. Awareness raising on gender mainstreaming and child protection was also facilitated with 50 farmers from Tepian Buah Village and 30 farmers from Long Okeng Village in Berau District as well as 35 farmers in Setulang Village, Malinau District. Besides GIZ’s conceptual framework on gender mainstreaming, the Community Dialogue approach from GIZ Strengthening Women’s Rights project (GIZ SWR) was used.
• FORCLIME supported the revision of the Ministerial Decree SK Menhut No.528/Menhut-II/Peg/2004 on the “Guideline for the Implementation of Gender Mainstreaming”. FORCLIME, together with MoEF’s Gender Working Group, has trained at least 100 auditors from MoEF on gender, gender mainstreaming, as well as gender responsive planning, budgeting and auditing. The auditors will have the role to audit all units in MoEF on gender-based programmes and activities as outlined in the Ministry’s planning and budgeting. As gender-based auditing will be mainstreamed in 2016, the performance of all units in the Ministry will be measured against their gender-responsiveness. This auditing process will continue in medium to long term as it is mandated in the legislation.
• FORCLIME supported its partners at MoEF, the COP signatories, during the process of formulating a position on “climate change, forestry and gender” to be presented at COP 21 in Paris.


What was our impact?

• Gender mainstreamed in national strategies: Through GIZ FORCLIME’s contribution, the overall five-year national forestry strategic plan (RENSTRA) 2015-2019 was gender-mainstreamed. MoEF allocated a gender responsive budget for 2014 of IDR 30,081,042,000 and budgeting for gender activities over the next five years will be allocated as outlined in the RENSTRA.
To ensure the adherence of these plans FORCLIME, together with the MoEF Working Group on Gender, trained over 100 auditors of the Inspection Directorate on gender mainstreaming on how to audit the planning, budgeting and implementation of activities. The gender based auditing has a legal basis and will be implemented in 2016. All units in MoEF will thus be measured against their success in integrating gender-responsive activities in their planning frameworks.
• Multiplier effect: Through FORCLIME’s gender-related activities 25 gender focal points have been trained via the ToT approach, which extended the gender training towards 155 government officials and 215 farmers on field level. Additionally in a South-South dialogue the lessons learned from gender mainstreaming in MoFE were shared with 50 participants of GIZ Brazil projects on the 22 July 2015. 
• Acknowledgements beyond our collaboration: In a national competition among all ministries, the Government of Indonesia awarded the top award to MoEF for implementing gender mainstreaming in its planning documents and activities. As a result of the support and collaboration, in 2016 MoEF is likely to move up to level 1 in the annually awarded national prize for “Gender Mainstreaming Classification” among all ministries. Also, GIZ FORCLIME won the first prize of the “GIZ Communicating Gender Award” in 2015 for GIZ Indonesia, Timor Leste and ASEAN.


Next steps

FORCLIME will continue to support the Gender Working Group at MoEF in the implementation of gender mainstreaming with focused emphasis on sustainability of mainstreaming through policies, as well as monitoring and evaluation involving both auditors and inspectorates.

Please watch the video of the Ministry of Environment and Forestry to learn more about our joint activities.

Responding to the growing calls for gender mainstreaming, the Ministry of Environment and Forestry (MoEF) initiated a process to mainstream gender in the forestry sector, asking the GIZ FORCLIME Programme for technical assistance. Gender mainstreaming in the development context aims to improve the quality of participation in and utilization of development processes for both men, women, and other marginalized groups. In March 2014, the Gender Working Group of the MoEF requested FORCLIME to support the Ministry in several areas:

• to integrate gender mainstreaming into MoEF’s Forestry Strategic Plan (RENSTRA 2015-2019),
• in the development of a “Gender Responsive Forestry and Climate Change Programme”,
• to revise the Ministerial Decree on the “Guideline for Implementation of Gender Mainstreaming”, and
• to implement and facilitate the documentation of lessons learned from gender mainstreaming pilot activities in the FORCLIME demonstration areas in Kalimantan.

Supporting the revision of the forest inventory guideline for production and protection FMUs in Indonesia


Forest inventories serve the purpose of collecting forest data and other relevant information for management (here: Fforest Mmanagement Uunits - FMUs). They provide the basis for all further analyses and planning steps as defined in long-term as well as annual business and management plans.

The application of sound and efficient forest inventory methods at FMU level is a precondition for the formulation of 10-year as well as annual management plans of FMUs and therefore of central importance to the forest sector reform of the Indonesian Government. Specific inventories need to be conducted at regular intervals at FMU, resort (RPH) and compartment level to provide the basis for forest management by determining the potential of forest and non-timber forest products.

Current challenges for forest inventories at FMU level:

The existing inventory guideline as well as the general conditions for forest inventories cause various challenges and difficulties to the implementation of inventories at FMU level:


  • The current Technical Guidance for Forest Use Planning and the Development of Forest Management Plans in Protection Forest Management Units (KPHL) and Production Forest Management Unit (KPHP), August 2012.” (Technical Guideline for FMU Inventories) recommends applying the same forest inventory methods at FMU level as were developed for the National Forest Inventory (NFI). The simple replication of the NFI method seems inappropriate for the FMU level with the result of high sampling errors. The NFI sampling method with cluster plots consisting of 1 permanent sample plot (square plot 100m x 100m with 16 measurement units) and , 8 temporary sampling plots (with 8 subplots each) is very time consuming and costly.
  • Private sector forest concession companies within FMUs are currently using a different inventory methodology (IHMB) based on a specific guidance with large 20 x 125 m rectangular plots resulting in a time and labour intensive implementation.

Capacities of stakeholders:

  • There are limited technical and financial capacities of subnational institutions such as within the 22 existing Technical Implementation Units (Balai Pemantapan Kawasan Hutan – BPKH) of the Directorate General (DG) of Forestry Planning and Environmental Governance of the Ministry of Environment and Forestry (MoEF), FMUs, research institutions, etc.
  • Local communities are often not adequately integrated into local forest inventories despite their local knowledge on forest areas and species.
  • Most forest inventories are conducted by private sector timber concession companies which have the primary interest in creating highest revenues from timber harvesting instead of maintaining the forest ecosystem services and functions in the long run.
  • Specific inventories (e.g. forest carbon inventories) are often conducted by research programmes of universities, NGOs or smaller specialized consulting companies, and rarely integrated into the NFI system.

Mandates of stakeholders::

  • Mandates, roles and responsibilities between different stakeholders at national level (ministry) and subnational level (provincial and district level) on forest inventories are not always clear.
  • The mandates of most FMUs are very complex covering sustainable forest management (SFM), emission reduction measures (e.g. REDD+), watershed management, biodiversity conservation, production of timber and non-timber forest products (NTFPs) and thereby improvement of local livelihoods. However their capacities to fulfil these mandates are rather low.

Scale and topography:

  • Most FMUs are responsible for managing large forest areas with different functions (conservation, protection, production), ownership types and utilization rights (forest dwellers, communities, private sector).
  • Due to the size, ecology and topography, the sustainable utilization of most natural forests in Indonesia is difficult. Additionally forest inventories are time and labour intensive and require dedicated and skilled staff.

Land tenure and utilization rights:

  • In many cases boundaries and tenure rights of specific forest areas are unclear and subject to disputes and conflicts.
  • Existing land use conflicts and/or lack of local community involvement are obstacles for inventories in some forest areas. Forest inventory teams are often considered as intruders.

FORCLIME supports the revision of the FMU forest management inventory guideline

Throughout the course of one year, FORCLIME has supported MoEF’s Directorate for Forest Resources Inventory and Monitoring (IPSDH) in the revision process of the existing technical guideline for FMU forest management inventories. In close collaboration with IPSDH and together with the ForestEye consultant team from the University of Goettingen, Germany, several Focus Group Discussions (FGD), workshops and trainings have been conducted:

March 2015: Preparatory meeting.. Assessment of the problems and challenges with the current technical inventory guideline, identification of key personnel within MoEF and set-up of a roadmap for the FORCLIME supported revision process.

April 2015: Focus Group Discussion. Presentation of results from the critical review of the current guideline by the consultants and preliminary recommendations on sampling design alternatives and options for the design of management inventories.

July 2015: Information and Training Needs Assessment. Assessment of the actual purpose of inventories on FMU level to identify information required to be collected during inventories. The link between inventory information and sustainable management plans was a critical issue. The expressed training needs were addressed through subsequent workshops and intensive training sessions in November.

November 2015: Workshop and training. FMU, BPKH and MoEF staff discussed possibilities to increase the cost-effectiveness of the inventory methodology as well as the clear formulation of the inventory purposes and objectives according to FMU needs. The one-day workshop was followed by a three-day training on Geographic Information Systems (GIS), data management, remote sensing and modern forest mensuration devices.

March 2016: Final workshop. A large group of forestry experts from MoEF, universities, FMUs, FAO and GIZ came together for a two-day workshop. Participants provided final inputs and discussed the minimum standard guideline for forest management inventories at FMU level compiled by FORCLIME and ForestEye Consultants.

Ultimately, FORCLIME and the ForestEye consultant team from the University of Goettingen will finalize the minimum standard guideline for forest management inventories on FMU level which will include all results and inputs from the above-described workshop series. This document is FORCLIME’s contribution to the ongoing revision process of the MoEF IPSDH’s inventory guideline and will be available in English and Bahasa Indonesia. IPSDH plans completing the revision process by June 2016. The revised inventory guideline shall be implemented in 2017.
For further information please contact:
Tobias Goedde, Strategic Area Manager for Sustainable Forest Management (SFM)

FORCLIME provides conceptual support on the implementation of financial management systems for Forest Management Units (FMUs) in Indonesia


FMUs need to fulfill certain requirements to be operational (as stipulated in Provision 6/2007). One requirement is to develop investments that support achieving the objective of sustainable forest management. Hence, FMUs must have an adequate financial management system in place, in addition to already existing budgeting systems under the national and sub-national government framework (APBN or APBD).

FORCLIME has been supporting this process of implementing financial management systems for Forest Management Units in Indonesia for several years already, in particular together the Forest Management Unit Gularaya in Southeast Sulawesi Province. With the help of FORCLIME’s facilitation and guidance, several milestones could be achieved.

The first milestone: In early 2012, FORCLIME funded a study entitled Policy concept of investment and financial management system for Forest Management Units (FMU). The study was conducted by a team of consultants with diverse expertise in forestry as well as in public administration and finance, and was completed in August 2012. (The consultant team consisted of: Bramasto Nugroho; Sudarsono Soedomo; Handra Hefrizal; Agus Setyarso; Guido Kartodihardjo; Ali Djajono)

The second milestone: FORCLIME also supported the publication of the book “PPK-BLUD – Towards Independent FMUs” (1st edition, September 2013).

The third milestone: FORCLIME initiated a trial for the implementation of PPK-BLUD in the Gularaya Production FMU, Southeast Sulawesi Province. The trial started in June 2013.

The fourth milestone: Between March - May 2014, an intensive facilitation process was conducted at Gularaya Production FMU in cooperation with local academicians from the University of Halu Oleo Kendari. The objective of the facilitation process was to prepare the required documents for implementation of PPK-BLUD in FMU Gularaya.

The activities conducted are:

  1. Drafting the document of Minimum Service Standards (SPM) for Gularaya FMU
  2. Preparing the Strategic Business Plan (RSB) for FMU Gularaya
  3. Preparing the document of Financial Reports Prognosis in Gularaya FMU
  4. Facilitating the assessment and decision-making process of the Evaluation Team of PPK-BLUD of FMU Gularaya.

The fifth milestone: A major success was the issuance of the Southeast Sulawesi Governor Decree 636/2014 on the establishment of a PPK-BLUD Assessment Team for FMU Gularaya, dated November 11, 2014.

The sixth milestone: As a result of facilitating the trial for PPK-BLUD implementation at GularayaProduction FMU, several local government regulations were issued:

  1. Endorsement of Southeast Sulawesi Governor Regulation 268/2016 on the implementation of Sub National Public Service Agency Financial Management Pattern (PPK-BLUD) at Provincial Technical Implementation Unit GularayaPFMU, Southeast Sulawesi Province, dated 14 April 2016.
  2. Southeast Sulawesi Governor Regulation 13/2016 on the Governance Pattern of GularayaPFMU, Southeast Sulawesi province, dated 12 April 2016.
  3. Southeast Sulawesi Governor Regulation 15/2016 on Minimum Service Standards of GularayaPFMU, dated 4 May 2016.

The seventh milestone, or latest achievement in 2016 supported by FORCLIME, is the provision of the PPK-BLUD Guidance – Towards Independent FMUs (2nd edition). Improvements have been made to the 1st edition, with the new guidance now including necessary templates for the implementation of PPK-BLUD at FMU level. This guidance may assist FMU managers in Indonesia to learn from the approach taken in FMU Gularaya and implement it in their own FMUs.

For further information, please contact:
Gatot Moeryanto, Senior Adviser for FMU Development
Wandojo Siswanto, Strategic Area Manager for Forestry Policy (National and Sub-national Regulatory Framework)

Support on Conservation Forest Management Unit (CFMU/ KPHK) development

FORCLIME provides advice to the Directorate General of Natural Resources and Ecosystem Conservation (KSDAE) of the Indonesian Ministry of Environment and Forestry, on the development of non-national park Conservation Forest Management Units (CFMU).
One product of this collaboration is a guidance for the “Design and Operational Management of CFMUs” (Rancang Bangun dan Operasional Pengelolaan KPHK). The document, which was completed in 2015, outlines the planning and preparatory steps for CFMU establishment as follows:

  1. Cluster the designated conservation area for management area certainty.
  2. Assess ecological aspects for ecological suitability with its designation.
  3. Evaluate distance and size for the effectivity and efficiency of the management unit.
  4. Assess resource availability, distribution, and accessibility for utilization.

First, a buffering technique based on proximity and adjacency, as well as geographical and ecological aspects is used for the determination of a new CFMU. Later on, key conservation areas are being identified through the Expert Judgment method, the core for delineation of the proposed management unit.
Other products resulting from the collaboration, are “Technical Operational Guidelines for Conservation Forest Management Units” (Petunjuk Teknis Operasional Kesatuan Pengelolaan Hutan Konservasi), or “Standards, Criteria and Procedures for CFMU Development” (currently in process).
Moreover, FORCLIME will promote these findings to be formalized in a Ministerial Regulation on CFMU development outside national parks, issued by the Ministry of Environment and Forestry.

Transformation: From Conservation Area to Conservation Forest Management Units

Based on Law No. 41 of 1999 concerning Forestry, conservation forest consists of forest sanctuaries (Strict Nature Reserve and Wildlife Reserve) and nature conservation forests (National Park, Grand Forest Park and Nature Tourism Park, including Hunting Park). Currently, existing national parks are being managed by special management units, known as National Park Offices (Balai and Balai Besar), or Grand Forest Parks which are under national or provincial governments. All other protected areas are managed by Nature Conservation Offices (Balai and Balai Besar) on provincial level. This different administration levels and institutions have led to a lack of effective management, especially in non-national park conservation areas on site level. In order to improve the sustainable management of forests, the establishment of Forest Management Units (FMU) is important for strengthening the implementation of forest management on site level. Hence, all forestland, including conservation forest shall be managed by special management unit based on its function. Therefore, the conservation areas and their current management of shall be transformed into CFMU as an area/cluster and a management unit (organization).


History of Conservation Area establishment in Indonesia

The establishment of conservation areas (CA) in Indonesia dates back to the Dutch Colonial Government which designated parts of Indonesian forests as “natuurmonumenten” (nature monument) or “wildreservaat” (wildlife reserve) under an East Indie Governor General decree. The purpose of preserving the forest included research and protection of nature and wild animal habitats, especially big mammals, birds and other attractive animals. There were areas managed by Forestry Offices (Onder het beheer van den Dienst van het Boschwezen) such as botanical reserves or the State Botanical Garden Bogor (Onder het beheer van den Directeur’s Land Paltentuin te Buitenzorg), and others managed by private sector (Onder het beheer door Particulieren) such as nature monuments. These areas were designated as nature reserves (natuurmonumenten) based on Nature Monument Law No. 278 of 18 March 1916 (Natuurmonumenten Ordonantie, Staatsblad van Nederlandch – Indie No. 278, 1916)1. In addition, many areas were designated as wildlife reserves (wildreservaat) to protect animal species which were threatened due to excessive hunting for hobby and beauty. The situation lead to restrictions of hunting activities through the enactment of Hunting Regulation no. 133/1916 (Jacht ordonnantie 1931 Staatsblad 1931 Nummer 133) which was followed by the enactment of Wild Animal Regulation (Dierenbeschermings ordonnantie 1931 Staatsblad 1931 Nummer 134).

In 1941, a Nature Protection Law (Natuurbeschermings ordonnantie 1941 Staatsblad 1941 Nummer 167) was issued as an improvement of the 1916 Nature Monument Law. However due to World War II (and Japanese invasion in 1942), no related activities were conducted until the enactment of Law No. 5 in 1967 concerning Basic Provision on Forestry. Under this law, protected areas were divided into Nature Reserve Forest and Tourism Forest. Based on this law, the former natuurmonumenten and wildreservaat were re-designated as nature and wildlife reserves. In addition, more land was designated as new protection areas such as Strict Nature Reserve, Wildlife Reserve, Tourism Park, and Hunting Park under a Ministry of Agriculture Decree. The basis of biodiversity conservation, however, was established after the enactment of Law No. 5 of 1990 concerning Living Natural Resources and Their Ecosystem Conservation, which at the same time confiscated the previous laws issued during the Dutch Colonial Government.

In 1978/1979, some conservation areas, mainly Strict Nature Reserves and Wildlife Reserves were assessed to be proposed as national parks by adjoining surrounding forestland to become reasonable compact areas. The first five national parks were declared in 1980, namely Gunung Leuser, Ujung Kulon, Gunung Gede Pangrango, Baluran and Komodo National Park. In 1982, during the World National Park Congress in Bali, another 11 areas were declared as national parks. Nowadays, there are 521 designated conservation areas in Indonesia, covering more than 27 million hectares, they include: Strict Nature Reserve (220), Wildlife Reserve (75), National Park (51), Grand Forest Park (23), Nature Tourism Park (115), and Hunting Park (13).


For more information, please contact:

Wandojo Siswanto, Strategic Area Manager for Forest and Climate Change Policy


 1 Yudistira, Pandji. 2014. Sang Pelopor.  Direktorat Kawasan Konservasi dan Bina Hutan Lindung, Direktorat Jenderal Perlindungan Hutan dan Konservasi Alam