Cooperation - Republic of Indonesia and Federal Republic of Germany

Support on Conservation Forest Management Unit (CFMU/ KPHK) development

FORCLIME provides advice to the Directorate General of Natural Resources and Ecosystem Conservation (KSDAE) of the Indonesian Ministry of Environment and Forestry, on the development of non-national park Conservation Forest Management Units (CFMU).
One product of this collaboration is a guidance for the “Design and Operational Management of CFMUs” (Rancang Bangun dan Operasional Pengelolaan KPHK). The document, which was completed in 2015, outlines the planning and preparatory steps for CFMU establishment as follows:

  1. Cluster the designated conservation area for management area certainty.
  2. Assess ecological aspects for ecological suitability with its designation.
  3. Evaluate distance and size for the effectivity and efficiency of the management unit.
  4. Assess resource availability, distribution, and accessibility for utilization.

First, a buffering technique based on proximity and adjacency, as well as geographical and ecological aspects is used for the determination of a new CFMU. Later on, key conservation areas are being identified through the Expert Judgment method, the core for delineation of the proposed management unit.
Other products resulting from the collaboration, are “Technical Operational Guidelines for Conservation Forest Management Units” (Petunjuk Teknis Operasional Kesatuan Pengelolaan Hutan Konservasi), or “Standards, Criteria and Procedures for CFMU Development” (currently in process).
Moreover, FORCLIME will promote these findings to be formalized in a Ministerial Regulation on CFMU development outside national parks, issued by the Ministry of Environment and Forestry.

Transformation: From Conservation Area to Conservation Forest Management Units

Based on Law No. 41 of 1999 concerning Forestry, conservation forest consists of forest sanctuaries (Strict Nature Reserve and Wildlife Reserve) and nature conservation forests (National Park, Grand Forest Park and Nature Tourism Park, including Hunting Park). Currently, existing national parks are being managed by special management units, known as National Park Offices (Balai and Balai Besar), or Grand Forest Parks which are under national or provincial governments. All other protected areas are managed by Nature Conservation Offices (Balai and Balai Besar) on provincial level. This different administration levels and institutions have led to a lack of effective management, especially in non-national park conservation areas on site level. In order to improve the sustainable management of forests, the establishment of Forest Management Units (FMU) is important for strengthening the implementation of forest management on site level. Hence, all forestland, including conservation forest shall be managed by special management unit based on its function. Therefore, the conservation areas and their current management of shall be transformed into CFMU as an area/cluster and a management unit (organization).


History of Conservation Area establishment in Indonesia

The establishment of conservation areas (CA) in Indonesia dates back to the Dutch Colonial Government which designated parts of Indonesian forests as “natuurmonumenten” (nature monument) or “wildreservaat” (wildlife reserve) under an East Indie Governor General decree. The purpose of preserving the forest included research and protection of nature and wild animal habitats, especially big mammals, birds and other attractive animals. There were areas managed by Forestry Offices (Onder het beheer van den Dienst van het Boschwezen) such as botanical reserves or the State Botanical Garden Bogor (Onder het beheer van den Directeur’s Land Paltentuin te Buitenzorg), and others managed by private sector (Onder het beheer door Particulieren) such as nature monuments. These areas were designated as nature reserves (natuurmonumenten) based on Nature Monument Law No. 278 of 18 March 1916 (Natuurmonumenten Ordonantie, Staatsblad van Nederlandch – Indie No. 278, 1916)1. In addition, many areas were designated as wildlife reserves (wildreservaat) to protect animal species which were threatened due to excessive hunting for hobby and beauty. The situation lead to restrictions of hunting activities through the enactment of Hunting Regulation no. 133/1916 (Jacht ordonnantie 1931 Staatsblad 1931 Nummer 133) which was followed by the enactment of Wild Animal Regulation (Dierenbeschermings ordonnantie 1931 Staatsblad 1931 Nummer 134).

In 1941, a Nature Protection Law (Natuurbeschermings ordonnantie 1941 Staatsblad 1941 Nummer 167) was issued as an improvement of the 1916 Nature Monument Law. However due to World War II (and Japanese invasion in 1942), no related activities were conducted until the enactment of Law No. 5 in 1967 concerning Basic Provision on Forestry. Under this law, protected areas were divided into Nature Reserve Forest and Tourism Forest. Based on this law, the former natuurmonumenten and wildreservaat were re-designated as nature and wildlife reserves. In addition, more land was designated as new protection areas such as Strict Nature Reserve, Wildlife Reserve, Tourism Park, and Hunting Park under a Ministry of Agriculture Decree. The basis of biodiversity conservation, however, was established after the enactment of Law No. 5 of 1990 concerning Living Natural Resources and Their Ecosystem Conservation, which at the same time confiscated the previous laws issued during the Dutch Colonial Government.

In 1978/1979, some conservation areas, mainly Strict Nature Reserves and Wildlife Reserves were assessed to be proposed as national parks by adjoining surrounding forestland to become reasonable compact areas. The first five national parks were declared in 1980, namely Gunung Leuser, Ujung Kulon, Gunung Gede Pangrango, Baluran and Komodo National Park. In 1982, during the World National Park Congress in Bali, another 11 areas were declared as national parks. Nowadays, there are 521 designated conservation areas in Indonesia, covering more than 27 million hectares, they include: Strict Nature Reserve (220), Wildlife Reserve (75), National Park (51), Grand Forest Park (23), Nature Tourism Park (115), and Hunting Park (13).


For more information, please contact:

Wandojo Siswanto, Strategic Area Manager for Forest and Climate Change Policy


 1 Yudistira, Pandji. 2014. Sang Pelopor.  Direktorat Kawasan Konservasi dan Bina Hutan Lindung, Direktorat Jenderal Perlindungan Hutan dan Konservasi Alam

Top marks for E-Learning: Evaluation results from 822 new forestry staff

Challenge to train 41,800 forestry staff – E-Learning as an answer?

The Center for Forestry Education and Training (CFET) of the Ministry of Environment and Forestry has the aim to train 41,800 people over the next five years. This number is three times higher than the one achieved within the last five years. One of the strategies to meet this objective is through the usage of E-Learning or Blended-Learning.

E-Learning is a self-directed or tutored learning process. The content is designed by using a software to insert photos, videos and audio fills to create an interesting learning experience. If it is provided by a CD-ROM or flash disc, E-Learning can be done off-line. No internet connection is necessary. E-Learning processes are more efficient, if learners collaborate online and are facilitated by trainers. Normally trainers support the learning process by using online chats or writing feedback with E-Mail. But if there are technical difficulties, it is also possible to use phone calls or sending SMS. Blended-Learning combines the outlined E-Learning with classical face-to-face trainings. This is often used to deepen the reflection by discussing the competencies gained online or offline.

E-Learning offers the possibility to conduct trainings for a high number of forestry personnel in remote areas. Therefore E-Learning can contribute to human capacity development to ensure dedicated and well trained forestry staff for Indonesian Forest Management Units, which can realize sustainable forest management, biodiversity conservation and livelihood improvement.

FORCLIME supports Implementation of E-Learning

Is E-Learning surely appropriate for the Centre for Forestry Education and Training (CFET) and its regional branchs? To answer this important question, a preliminary assessment of the e-learning readiness was conducted in September 2014. Through group discussions with the management and trainers, it became obvious that the Implementation of E-Learning is possible. It also been regarded as appropriate to increase quality of learning and quantity of trained forestry personnel. In a next step a E-Learning Discovery Workshop was necessary to join forces and to sharpen the vision for E-Learning within the CFET and the regional training centres. To gain clear inside into the implementation process, two training institutions from Ministry of Finance and Province East Java shared their experiences and challenges. Furthermore the State Administration Agency (LAN) was invited to give orientation about rules and regulations applied for E-learning activities of the trainers. It was guaranteed that the efforts of the trainers will be honoured likewise classical training development and facilitation. Another important topic of this workshop was the identification of a training for which E-Learning should be developed. It was jointly agreed that E-Learning will be developed to support the training of 822 new forestry personnel in March 2015.

With 3 content development workshops for about 30 trainers it was possible to reach the very challenging milestone in time. 822 new staff for Forest Management Units were able to learn with 6 Modules:

  • Introduction into “Forest Management Unit” (FMU)
  • Management of Collaboration within FMU
  • Facilitation technique for Communication and Collaboration within FMU
  • Entrepreneurship in FMU
  • Analysis of non-timber forest products for economic empowerment in FMU
  • Introduction into the usage of GPS in FMU

For a look into the modules, please visit:

Findings of the Evaluation

The participants were asked to give feedback to gain inside into the benefits and challenges of the provided 6 E-Learning modules. The modules got top marks from the learners. In average 1/3 of the participants said, that the modules are very interesting, varying from module to module from 55 to 70 Percent. 2/3 of the participants reported, that the modules are interesting, varying from module to module from 25 to 37 Percent. Interestingly 39 Percent of the participants reported, that a lot of new learning content was provided by the E-Learning Modules. “Management of Collaboration within FMU” for example, was one of the modules, which provided mostly new content for nearly half of the participants (45 percent). As more than 2/3 of the participants (68 percent) summarize, that the E-Learning Modules are very helpful for their future work in the Forest Management Unit, it could be said, that the E-Learning was a great success. Thus, further efforts to implement E-Learning and Blended Learning within CFET, the regional training centers and also vocational highschools can be done with great motivation and spirit.


The Implementation of E-Learning is to set up the Learning Management System (LMS) that has conducted in end of March 2015. During this meeting discussed how tasks and responsibilities will be organized within the Center of forestry education and training (CFET) and the regional training centers (BDK). The forestry vocational Highschools (SMKK) were invited to get insight into the possibilities of E-Learning and to reflect on their involvement. A very important goal of this event will be the Identification of future trainings, which are suitable as Blended-Learning trainings. Next to a Workshop to develop Blended Learning, several more Training of the trainers (ToT) will be offered. One ToT will support the trainers to gain competencies, how to facilitate learners in their E-Learning processes. Afterwards trainers and member of the E-Learning Team are competent to provide themselves Training for E-Learning/Blended Learning Development, ToTs for E-Learning Facilitation and Learning Management System (LMS) Trainings. By 2016 the Center of forestry Education and Training as well as the Regional Training centers are able to develop and conduct E-Learning successfully to strengthen Human Capacity Development of forestry staff in Indonesia and also in the ASEAN Region. These are important steps towards realization the vision being a center of Excellence for forestry training.

For further information, please contact:

Anne-Cathrin Vonarx, Adviser for Human Capacity Development
Edy Marbyanto, Strategic Area Manager for Human Capacity Development

Facilitating Community Based Forest Management (CBFM)

FORCLIME supports communities in their application and preparation for Community Based Forest Management (CBFM) with the aim of facilitating their legal access to forest resources, building their capacities for sustainable forest management and diversifying their sources of income so as to improve their livelihoods. These activities also serve as pilots for the Forest Management Units who in the future will be expected to facilitate and assist communities with CBFM development in their area.

In collaboration with the district forest services FORCLIME has comprehensively supported the process of CBFM development in two villages, Setulang in Malinau District (5.300 ha) and Manua Sadap (1.600 ha) in Kapuas Hulu District together with other partners such as the regional Watershed Management Agency (BP-DAS) and NGOs like Flora Fauna International and Perkumpulan Kaban. As a first step and based on information about the different CBFM options, the communities selected the CBFM scheme that seemed most appropriate for them, in both cases this was Village Forest (Hutan Desa). During the period of 2010-2012, facilitation activities in the two villages included development of a Village Forest Proposal, training and mentoring to strengthen the village forest management organization, and training for legal drafting. FORCLIME supported participatory village boundary mapping, field verification of the village forest area and a participatory inventory of potential non-timber forest products. Capacity building included skills on how to assess and register the quantities and qualities of available forest resources and how to prepare a sound sustainable forest management plan. Moreover, trainings were conducted on the utilisation and processing of selected non-timber forest or agroforestry products such as honey and coconut oil. The forest management institutions have been formed in the villages and are currently awaiting the work permit for the village forest working area from the Ministry of Forestry.

Additionally, to strengthen the facilitating services from the District Forestry Office with regard to village forest development, a series of study tours has been undertaken to Jambi, Yogyakarta and West Sumatra, in addition to training for village forest facilitators from the Forest Service of Malinau. Currently, a study is conducted to review the curriculum and training modules for village forest facilitators in order to improve the training materials so that in the future they will more suitable for needs in the field.

Further activities to be followed up include: (a) Participatory forest inventory in the forest of Manua Sadap village, (b) Preparation of the work plan for Village Forests in Setulang and Manua Sadap, after the village forest working area is established, (c) Submission of the proposal of village forest management to the Governor, (d) Strengthening the capacity on CBFM for the forestry extension staff and NGOs, (e) Facilitating the development of community-level forestry enterprises (honey, gaharu, rattan), (f) Replicating the development of CBFM in other villages in Malinau , Berau and Kapuas Hulu districts in the framework of the Forest Management Units.
The capacity building measures have empowered the communities to make their village forest applications in line with the sometimes complex administrative procedures. They are now in a better position to manage their forests in a sustainable way and derive benefits for their livelihood improvement. The district forest services have been able to draw on experiences also from other regions in Indonesia and benefitted from a learning-by-doing approach in handling the administrative processes which are still new to all stakeholders involved.

For further information, please contact:
Ali Mustofa, Thematic Leader of Community Empowerment
Tunggul Butarbutar, Strategic Area Manager of FMU development

Forest inventory for a potential Village Forest in Karangan Bunut, West Kalimantan

karangan bunut


The implementation of the Ministry of Forestry’s forest management policy through the Forestry Minister regulation No. 49/2008 concerning village forest management is currently applied at district and community levels in Indonesia.
In particular, the community of Karangan Bunut hamlet in Manua Sadap village, Kapuas Hulu district, West Kalimantan province is actively participating in the implementation of this policy. Here, the people of Karangan Bunut have submitted a proposal to the Ministry of Forestry to manage their community forest of about 1,640 hectares under the Forest Village (Hutan Desa) scheme. The proposed location has already been verified by a team of the Ministry of Forestry in September 2012.
While waiting for the Village Forest permit to be issued by the Ministry of Forestry, the community has initiated a forest inventory, including Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) potentials, in the proposed forest area.

FORCLIME support of forest inventory in Karangan Buntut

FORCLIME in collaboration with the Tanjungpura University in Pontianak, West Kalimantan, has facilitated the forest inventory in Manua Sadap village. This activity was undertaken together with the community of Karangan Buntut.
Prior to data collection, which took place over a period of ten days, all parties involved in the inventory received a five-days training on how to conduct data collection in the field. The training also aimed at enabling the community to independently conduct forest inventories in the future.

The methodology for the forest inventory applies systematic sampling and square plots. Overall, 18 plots in a distance of 1,000 m have been installed. The distribution of plots was defined based on land cover classes, utilization principles by the community, and division of representation wide.

Findings of the forest inventory

Data analysis regarding the economic potential of the Village Forest has shown that many commercial timber species can be found in the inventory plots, such as Tekam (Hopea sp) and Meranti (Shorea sp) or Kelansau (Dryobalanops sp). Six out of the established 18 plots can be classified with very good land cover classes where many trees with a diameter of more than 35 cm, including Tekam and Meranti, can be found. This is because these six plots are located upstream and therefore difficult to reach during the community’s daily activities.
Furthermore, there are five plots with moderate land cover, which contain only a low number of less commercial timber species, such as Kempas (Koompasia malaccensis), and thus also a low timber potential.
The remaining seven plots are forests with a low canopy closure, or former fields, which therefore only contain a low timber potential. These seven plots are located close to the community’s settlements, and are thus highly influenced by their daily economic activities.

High exploitation of NTFPs such as rattan, by the community of Karangan Bunut has already reduced the presence of rattan with ready-to-be-harvested size, which can therefore today be found in upstream forest areas only.
The non-forest land located downstream at seven inventory plots is used by local people for the collection of food, such as Gambir (Syzygium polyanthum) or Entaban (Poikilospermum suaveolens). Medicinal plants like Forest Betel (Piper sp) or Keminting (Melastoma affine) are still abundant in all plots.

The Dayak Iban community in Karangan Bunut has excellent local wisdom about the use of forests and their resources. For example, not all forest areas are converted for farming, and fields are cultivated periodically. The un-cultivated land is planted with rubber and fruit trees such as durian or tengkawang, and thus often called Tembawang forest. (Tengkawang is the local name for a fruit tree that belongs to the family of Dipterocarpaceae, and has fruits which produce high value oil).
Regarding wildlife conservation, Dayak Iban local wisdom does not allow them to hunt Orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus), as they believe that the Orangutan is an ancestor of the Dayak people.


The results from the inventory will be used as a baseline to develop a forest management plan of the Karangan Bunut forest based on the Village Forest scheme.
The forest inventory has shown that the forest resource potential in Karangan Buntut is still very high. Therefore, forest management based on the Village Forest scheme combined with local wisdom will be able to achieve the sustainable management of the existing forests while also contributing to the improvement of livelihoods of the people in Karangan Buntut community.

For further information, please contact:
Ali Mustofa, Thematic Leader for Community Empowerment
Tunggul Butarbutar, Strategic Area Manager for FMU Development

Establishing a REDD+ Safeguards Information System

From 2011 until today FORCLIME has supported the Center for Standardisation and Environment of the Ministry of Forestry in setting up an Information System on REDD+ Safeguards Implementation as agreed by the Conference of Parties to the UNFCCC at their 16th session in Cancun in 2010.

The process began with a national stakeholder workshop in March 2011 to identify safeguards instruments and policies in use in the forest sector in Indonesia and to discuss their strengths and weaknesses. Instruments presented included both mandatory safeguards tools and procedures such as Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) or the mandatory SFM certification as well as voluntary initiatives such as forest certification standards or high conservation value forest assessment. Of these existing safeguards instruments seven were later analysed in depth with regard to their relevance and suitability as REDD+ safeguards and the results validated. Based on the analysis a set of principles, criteria and indicators were derived to serve as a measuring tool for safeguards implementation in REDD+. The analysis and extraction of principles, criteria and indicators was carried out through a series of Focus Group Discussions with ressource persons from both governmental, civil society, private sector and research organisations with technical support from Daemeter Consulting. Moreover, the series of Focus Group Discussions conducted in 2011 and 2012 also generated proposals for the structure, information flow and functioning of the REDD+ Safeguards Information System. In the beginning of 2013 a tool for the self-assessment and reporting on safeguards implementation by REDD+ activity proponents has been created. The next step in the process is to develop a prototype database and web-platform by which information on REDD+ safeguards implementation will be provided to interested stakeholders. FORCLIME will further support trials of the system at the provincial level.

For more information contact:
At FORCLIME: Rayan Mohammad: 
At the Centre for Standardization and Environment: Novi Widyaningtyas:

Or download relevant publications from our media and publications page such as

Principles, Criteria and Indicators for a System for Providing Information on REDD+ Safeguards Implementation (SIS-REDD+) in Indonesia. Centre for Standardization and Environment, Ministry of Forestry, and Forests and Climate Change Programme, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit, 2013.

Or consult the Website of the Centre for Standardization and Environment, Ministry of Forestry:


More news...

Upcoming Events

21 March 2017. International Day of Forests

The International Day of Forests is a day to raise awareness of the importance of all types of forests, and trees outside forests, for the benefit of current and future generations. Activities that take place in support of this day include...


22 March 2017 World Water Day

With the goal of raising awareness in governments and organization of the need to develop the policies needed to ensure that sustainable water and energy are secured for the many and not just the few, World Water Day, observed on 22 March, was...


More events...